The Dirac Sea Does Not Have a Speed Limit

John Karpinsky
5 min readApr 6, 2022
Figure 1: Dirac sea for a massive particle. • particles, • antiparticle

Between matter and antimatter is the quantum vacuum.

In Figure 1 above, the yellow region is where there are massive particles and time. The blue region is where there are anti-particles and anti-time or time going backwards from our frame of reference. The red region is the Dirac Sea.

The hypothesis that the Dirac Sea or the Quantum Vacuum has complete connectivity, and is outside of space and time is the subject of this article. In this hypothesis, space and time are created by quantum waves (particles) that exceed the energy required to form a quantum particle. All waves below that threshold are part of the Dirac Sea. As stated previously in “The Mind Blowing Mystery of Time”, there is time and anti-time, and they are part of the wave function, or should be part of the wave function. The Schrodinger equation is incomplete because it does not include the creation of mass in matter and anti-matter and time and anti-time as described in “The Mind Blowing Mystery of the Creation of Mass”. I made an attempt to formulate an equation, the Karpinsky equation, to replace the Schrodinger equation, and include the curvature of spacetime that causes mass and time. This equation may not be correct because it has not been rigorously derived mathematically yet. But it does include the curvature of spacetime that is intrinsic to gravity, which is caused by mass. It is also obvious that mass causes gravity, and that creating mass in the Karpinsky Equation is necessary for it to describe the correct wave function. Mass is created by the wave function curving time into the space dimension via the Higgs field so that the matter wave is stationary rather than traveling at the speed of light. This is the curvature of spacetime that causes gravity.

In the low energy region below the quantum threshold called the quantum vacuum, there is still a great deal of activity as shown in figure 2. I have also called it the quantum foam in my article “Measuring the Quantum Foam”

Figure 2: Simulation of the energy activity in the quantum vacuum

If you click on the Figure 2 link, it will open a video of this simulation.

John Karpinsky

I am a retired physicist, with 40+ years experience designing chips. I’m now studying quantum mechanics as a hobby.